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Главная Грубые корма Сенаж Сенаж в башне Харвестор

Сенаж в башне Харвестор

Сенаж в башне ХарвесторВ конце 50-х начале 60-х годов в США началась пропаганда якобы нового корма из трав, приготовление которого стало возможным благодаря созданию стальных герметичных башен. Этот сельскохозяйственный корм назвали сенаж. По существу пропагандировавшийся корм — сенаж представляет собой то же самое, что сено-силос Сомарани или аутоконсерв Михина.
Реклама фирмы Харвестор, выпускавшей стальные башни, утверждала, что сенаж, поскольку его готовят из травы, подвяленной до влажности 35—45%, нельзя заготавливать не только в траншеях, но и в обычных башнях, так как из-за низкой влажности массы и недостаточной герметичности хранилища корм плесневеет.


Утверждалось также, что, чем сильнее подвялена трава на сенаж, тем больше питательных веществ в ней съедают животные. Это дает возможность содержать их на сенаже в качестве единственного корма без подкормки какими-либо другими кормами. Через несколько лет стало ясно, что не все первоначальные утверждения оказались справедливыми. Прежде всего, появились сомнения в целесообразности провяливания массы до влажности ниже 50%. Например, управляющий фермой Нантенбух из ФРГ сообщал, что несколько лет они закладывали в башнях типа Харвестор сенаж из трав, подвяленных до влажности 40—45%. Коровы охотно поедали такой сенаж, однако молочная продуктивность их была низка. Это явилось следствием того, что корм сильно самосогревался, отчего резко снижалась его питательность. В дальнейшем в хозяйстве не допускали, чтобы влажность закладываемой массы была ниже 55—60%.
Конечно, самосогревание массы в процессе загрузки и хранения может быть предотвращено при правильной технологии закладки сенажа. Хуже обстоит дело с самосогреванием массы в процессе разгрузки башен. При нижней разгрузке самосогревание сенажа в башнях типа Харвестор не происходит только при быстром их опорожнении. Если процесс выемки затягивается, то остающийся корм начинает согреваться, ибо углекислый газ быстро уходит через выгрузное отверстие и занявший его место воздух создает возможность для жизнедеятельности аэробной микрофлоры. Кстати выявилось, что нижние разгрузчики имеют недостаточную производительность. Масса сенажа медленно опускается, приходится сразу брать сенаж из 2—3 башен, а это еще усугубляет самосогревание.
Наряду с наблюдениями чисто практического порядка были проведены в научных учреждениях разных стран и специальные опыты, чтобы установить действительные достоинства и недостатки сенажа, разработать наиболее целесообразную технологию его приготовления и порядок использования.


 

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