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Главная Грубые корма Сено Травяная сечка

Травяная сечка

Травяная сечкаТрава, высушенная на барабанных сушилках, получается в виде резки, сечки, длина частиц которой равна 2—3 см. Для получения травяной муки эту сечку пускают в дробилку. Для жвачных же животных размол не только не требуется, но и не желателен, для них травяная сечка является готовым для использования кормом. Сечка дешевле, чем травяная мука, поскольку устраняется довольно энергоемкая операция — размол.

Для жвачных животных травяную резку используют как концентрированный и основной корм, наиболее близко стоящий и по питательности и по усвояемости к свежему зеленому карму. В сечке по существу, если не считать 5—7% потерь, содержатся все питательные вещества зеленого корма. А поскольку они почти полностью избавлены от воды, жвачные в состоянии их съесть больше и продукции дать больше. По данным опытов, проведенных во Франции, протеин искусственно высушенной, богатой протеином молодой травы используется лучше, чем при скармливании натуральной травы.
Травяная сечка может в значительном количестве входить в рацион молочного, выращиваемого и откормочного скота. Однако единственным кормом или даже заменителем всех объемистых кормов рациона она служить не может. Дело не только в том, что искусственно высушенная травяная сечка дорога. Приготовленная из молодых трав, она содержит избыток протеина и недостаточно клетчатки. Важное значение имеет физическое состояние клетчатки, степень измельчения ткани.
Скармливание зеленого корма в виде муки жвачным животным приводит к изменению типа брожения в рубце: образованию меньшего количества уксусной и возрастанию пропионовой кислоты. Наблюдается подкисление содержимого рубца, поскольку корм недостаточно смачивается слюной, да и содержание щелочей в ней понижается. Может ли предотвратить это явление скармливание не муки, а сечки из барабанной сушилки, пока не выяснено окончательно.
Нормирование клетчатки в рационе жвачных животных не может вестись только по валовому ее содержанию. Ведь переваримость клетчатки молодых трав 85 — 90%, тогда как клетчатки соломы всего лишь около 40%. Важно, очевидно, количество не только перевариваемой, но и неперевариваемой клетчатки. С точки зрения нормального пищеварения содержание последней может быть даже важнее. Об этом свидетельствуют опыты с заменой объемистого корма пластмассовой стружкой.    
Травяную сечку можно с успехом применять в качестве замены сена и, разумеется, части концентратов, поскольку она значительно питательнее сена. В опытном хозяйстве Всесоюзного института кормов в течение нескольких лет стадо коров с продуктивностью 4500—5000 л молока получает вместо сена травяную сечку из многолетних и частично однолетних трав. Ее скармливают в рационе, включающем также кукурузный и другие виды силоса из однолетних культур, корнеплоды и концентраты. Никаких отклонений от нормы в здоровье и продуктивности животных после такой замены сена не отмечается.
Добавка легкопереваримых углеводов при кормлении скота сечкой в качестве единственного корма необходима потому, что молодая трава, из которой готовится сечка, содержит протеина на кормовую единицу значительно больше, чем это требуется по зоотехнической норме.

 

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