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Главная Грубые корма Солома Обработка соломы кальцинированной содой (углекислым натрием Na2CO3)

Обработка соломы кальцинированной содой (углекислым натрием Na2CO3)

Обработка соломы кальцинированной содой (углекислым натрием Na2CO3)Хорошие результаты получены при обработке соломы кальцинированной содой (углекислым натрием Na2CO3), которая представляет собой соль, обладающую щелочными свойствами. Для обработки соломы рекомендуется использовать безводный углекислый натрий. Химической промышленностью выпускается и кристаллический углекислый натрий, содержащий 10 молекул воды. Кристаллический углекислый натрий применять для обработки соломы не следует, так как его требуется вносить в 2 раза больше, чем безводного.

Применение углекислого натрия основано на выделении из него углекислого газа и на образовании едкого натрия. Разложение углекислого натрия с выделением углекислого газа начинается уже при температуре 40°С. Поэтому эффективная обработка соломы углекислым натрием может быть возможна при ее нагревании или самосогревании.
Для обработки используют 5%-ный раствор соды (на 1 т соломы вносят 1 м3 раствора). Обработку соломы проще вести одновременно с запариванием, используя то же оборудование, что и для обработки известью. Однако срок пропаривания в этом случае значительно уменьшается. Солома прогревается до прекращения конденсации пара. С появлением первых струек пара в воздухопаровых отверстиях запарники нужно отключить от котлов, оставляя в них солому на 40—50 мин. Обработанную солому скармливают скоту в теплом виде, смешивая ее с концентратами и сочными кормами.
Техника обработки соломы раствором кальцинированной соды с самосогреванием сводится к равномерному ее смачиванию и созданию благоприятных условий для развития бактерий. Для самосогревания используют траншеи, ямы или другие емкости, но их размеры должны быть не менее 5м3, поскольку при меньшем объеме в них трудно сохранить тепло и достигнуть хорошего самосогревания соломы. Для расчета необходимой емкости сооружений исходят из того, что в 1 м3 входит 0,1 -1,2 т смоченной раствором измельченной соломы при ее тщательном уплотнении. Солому укладывают слоями толщиной не более 40—50 см, смачивают раствором соды и уплотняют. Для внесения раствора в солому используют различные механизмы, предназначенные дли опрыскивания сельскохозяйственных культур ядохимикатами и обработки производственных помещений. В траншеях уплотнение соломы проводят тракторами. Смачивание соломы можно проводить одновременно с ее измельчением так же, как и при обработке соломы едким натрием. После загрузки емкости и уплотнения соломы поверхность ее укрывают сухой соломой для уменьшения потерь тепла. На 4—5-й день после заполнения емкостей солома обычно самосогревается до 40—45°С и готова к скармливанию. Согретую солому, которую предполагается использовать длительное время, необходимо укрыть пологом из полимерной пленки и прижать по всей поверхности соломой для устранения плесневения.
Обработанная кальцинированной содой солома, как при запаривании, так и при самосогревании приобретает приятный запах и хорошо поедается скотом. По переваримости и общей питательности она не уступает соломе, обработанной едким натрием. Но кальцинированная сода дешевле и удобнее в обращении, чем едкий натрий. Ее применение может оказаться особенно перспективным для обработки соломы в процессе гранулирования.

 

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