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Зерно кукурузы

Зерно кукурузыЗерно кукурузы отличается высоким содержанием углеводов, главным образом крахмала (до 70%), по сравнению с зерном других хлебных злаков богато жиром (иногда до 7%) и средним количеством для злаковых протеина (9—12%). Из всех хлебных злаков зерно кукурузы содержит наименьшее количество кальция (в 3,5 раза меньше, чем в овсе и сорго, в 3 раза меньше, чем в ячмене и просе, в 2 раза меньше, чем в ржи, и в 1,5 раза меньше, чем в пшенице).

Переваримость кукурузы очень высокая и достигает 90%; перевариваемые питательные вещества полноценные. Зерно кукурузы имеет твердую, относительно богатую клетчаткой до некоторой степени рогообразную кожуру (оболочку). Однако вследствие содержания некоторого количества частиц зародыша и крахмала перевариваемость кожуры вполне удовлетворительна. Высокой перевариваемостью отличается не только зерно кукурузы, но и другие частицы этой культуры. Так, в среднем на долю зерна приходится 30-40% урожая, стержней, кочерыжек без зерна —10% и бодылей (чала) —около 50%.

Хорошая поедаемость и высокая переваримость зерна кукурузы объясняются богатством жира. В зерне кукурузы содержится недостаточное количество протеина, а белки в нем невысокого качества: 3/5 белка в эндосперме представлено зеином, в котором дефицит таких незаменимых аминокислот, как триптофан и лизин. Жир кукурузы характеризуется низкой точкой плавления, содержит много ненасыщенных жирных кислот. До 40% жира приходится на зародыш, составляющий по объему 1/3, а но весу 1/8 зерна. Желтозерные сорта кукурузы содержат пигмент криптоксантин, который является предшественником витамина А (имеются данные, что такое зерно придает продуктам животноводства желтоватую окраску). Зерно кукурузы из-за бедности зольными элементами, неполноценности белка и недостаточности протеина малопригодно для молодняка, молочных коров и беременных животных.

При использовании рационов с большой долей кукурузы сало свиней становится слишком мягким и маслянистым из-за высокого содержания в кукурузном масле ненасыщенных жирных кислот. Поэтому вместе с зерном кукурузы рекомендуется скармливать корма, улучшающие качество сала,— бедное жиром зерно бобовых, ржи, ячменя, картофеля. Дойным коровам кукурузу следует скармливать в ограниченном количестве, поскольку от нее животные быстро жиреют, а масло получается слишком мягким. В зерновые смеси, предназначенные на корм молодняку крупного рогатого скота, можно вводить до 40% зерна кукурузы. Она способствует росту молодняка, а также повышению яйценоскости кур. Скармливание кукурузы в больших количествах может принести к заболеванию птиц.

Скармливают кукурузу в виде измельченного зерна, измельченных початков в свежем виде, начиная с периода молочно-восковой спелости. Племенным производителям зерно кукурузы можно давать, но в умеренных количествах; скармливание его в большом количестве ведет к ожирению животных, в результате чего они становятся инертными. Ввиду того, что зерно кукурузы содержит много жира и быстро портится, делать запасы его в дробленом или размолотом виде более чем на 3—5 дней не следует.

 

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