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Главная Овец Системы содержания овец

Системы содержания овец

Системы содержания овецТехнология производства продукции овцеводства - это совокупность методов, средств и приемов, направленных на максимальную переработку кормов с помощью овец в шерсть, баранину, смушки, овчину и молоко. Она тесно связана с природно-климатическими условиями зоны и особенностями кормопроизводства.
В зоне экстенсивного земледелия, где низкая распаханность земель и много естественных пастбищ, поголовье овец в хозяйствах рассредоточивается по территории с целью лучшего использования травостоя пастбищ.

В этой зоне овчарне строят П-, Г- и Ш-образной формы, шириной 10-12 и высотой 1,5-2 м. У них нет возможности применять механизацию, поэтому все процессы выполняются вручную. Норма нагрузки овец на чабана - 200-250 овцематок и 300-350 голов молодняка.
В овцеводстве этой зоны хранятся традиционные методы кормления и содержания овец, воссоздания стада и стрижки.
В зоне интенсивного земледелия, где естественных пастбищ мало или они полностью отсутствующие, поголовье овец концентрируется на комплексно-механизированных фермах. Овчарни на таких фермах прямоугольной формы, имеют ширину 18 и высоту 2,7 м, что позволяет эффективно использовать механизацию и повышать нагрузку на чабана до 400-450 овцематок, 600-700 голов молодняка и до 1000 голов овец на откорме.
На таких фермах отдельно оборудуют пункты искусственного оплодотворения, пункты для стрижки, установки для купания овец, кормоцеха, помещения для хранения кормов. Фермы ограждают, а все объекты соединяют дорогами с твердым покрытием. Летом в зоне интенсивного земледелия, где есть возможность, создают культурные пастбища с постоянными ограждениями и применяют отрядное и порционное выпасание овец. Там, где нет возможности образовать культурные пастбища, овец удерживают в специально оборудованных лагерях или на механизированных летних площадках.
С учетом особенностей кормопроизводства и природно-климатических условий в зонах в овцеводстве применяют 4 системы содержания овец: пастбищную, пастбищно-стойловую, стойлово-пастбищную и стойловую. В зоне  земледелия, где много естественных пастбищ, используют пастбищную и пастбищно-стойловую системы, а в зоне интенсивного земледелия, где пастбищ практически нет, - стойлово-пастбищную и стойловую системы.
Пастбищная система содержания овец используется в районах с теплым климатом и достаточным количеством естественных пастбищ, что позволяет выпасать овец круглогодично. При этой системе весь годовой запас кормов овцы получают на пастбищах.
Пастбищно-стойловая система содержания овец используется в районах с большим количеством естественных пастбищ, но с суровыми снежными зимами, что не позволяет применять зимнее выпасание овец. При этой системе 25-30% кормов овцы используют при стойловом содержании.
Стойловая система содержания овец применяется в районах, где нет естественных пастбищ, а культурные пастбища создавать нецелесообразно. Овец круглогодично кормят в помещениях или на специально оборудованных площадках. Для обеспечения снабжения зеленой массой в течение летнего периода в хозяйствах создают зеленый конвейер, а зимой овец кормят полно-рационными смесями из сена, соломы, кукурузного силоса.

 

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