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Главная Рыбы Рыба лещ

Рыба лещ

Рыба лещБиологическая характеристика леща

Ценная промышленная рыба. Перспективная для прудового рыбоводства, в первую очередь - для больших неспускаемых прудов, а также как объект выращивания в некоторых категориях водоемов комплексного назначения и озерно-товарных рыбных хозяйствах.
Широко распространен в реках, озерах, водохранилищах. Живёт также на опресненных участках морей, откуда на нерест заходит в реки. Рыба лещ отдает преимущество глубоким (до 3-6 м) местам со слабым и умеренным течением воды, заиленным и глинистым дном.

Питается на первом году жизни преимущественно мелкими ракообразными, частично бентосом. В старшем возрасте - типичный бентофаг, еду добывает в местах более глубоких, чем карп. Основными участками питания рыбы леща есть донные части водоемов на определенном расстоянии от берега и в зоне открытой воды. Во время массового вылета насекомых, особенно ночью, может подниматься для питания к поверхности воды. Любимую природную пищу леща представляют бентосные личинки насекомых, червяки и мелкие моллюски. Второстепенными кормовыми объектами могут быть разнообразные бентосные ракообразные, в частности бокоплавающие и мелкие речные раки в период линьки. Почти всегда в составе еды леща присутствующий детрит, изредка - большие формы зоопланктона, насекомые, растительность. Достигает массы свыше 3-5 кг. В богатых на зообентос водоёмах лещ в течение первого года вырастает в среднем до 15-20 г, двухлетки и трехлетки достигают массы соответственно - 100-150 и 300-400 г, в возрасте четырех лет рыбы могут иметь массу 500-600 г и больше. Созревают самцы леща, как правило, на третьем, самки - на четвертом году жизни, плодовитость - 90-600 тыс. икринок, иногда больше. Наивысшего уровня плодовитости самки леща достигают в 5-7-летнем возрасте. Нерест леща происходит преимущественно в первой половине мая при температуре воды 12- 17°С. Икру лещ откладывает на затопленную наземную и водную растительность.

Технологические приемы культивирования леща

Размножают леща путем высаживания на нерест в специальные нерестовые водоемы (пруды) или непосредственно в большие нагульные водоемы, где рыба находит себе благоприятные условия для нереста. Средняя длина лещей-плодников - 35-40 см, масса - 800-900 г. При температуре воды 16-17°С инкубационный период длится до 5 суток, при 12-13°С - 9 суток.
Для данного способа размножения леща в условиях прудов могут быть приняты такие рыбоводческие нормы:

  • средняя рабочая плодовитость - 100 тыс. шт. икринок;
  • выживания молоди от икры до сеголеток - 10%;
  • посадка плодников на нерест - около 15 гнезд на 1 гектар.

Из прудов подращенных мальков рыбы леща массой 200 мг в возрасте 1 месяца рассаживают на выращивание в другие водоемы. Наилучшие результаты можно получить при зарыблении водоемов лещом в возрасте сеголеток и особенно двухлеток, которые достигли средней массы свыше 100 г.  Плотность посадки молодого леща на нагул может изменяться в широких пределах, в зависимости от средней массы и возраста посадочного материала, развития естественной кормовой базы. Следует также учитывать фактор концентрации в водоемах хищных видов рыб. Старшие возрастные группы леща со зрелыми половыми железами являются хорошим материалом для заготовки гипофизов, необходимых для работ искусственного воссоздания рыб.


 

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