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Главная Рыбы Выращивание личинок карпа

Выращивание личинок карпа

Выращивание личинок карпаПосле нереста карпа устанавливают наблюдение за ходом инкубации икры: определяют процент оплодотворения, следят за гидрохимическим и температурным режимами, следят за состоянием кормовой базы. Перед вылупливанием предличинок (стадия подвижного эмбриона) донные водоспуски тщательным образом закрывают.

 

В первые 1-2 сутки эмбрионы, которые вышли из икры, малоподвижны, находятся на траве, прикрепившись к ней клейкой железой, и питаются за счет питательных веществ желткового пузыря. До активного питания они переходят по большей части на третьи сутки после вылупливания из икры.
Мальку карпа на начальных этапах активного питания необходимы в достаточном количестве доступные кормовые организмы. Вместе с тем, компоненты питания на разных стадиях постэмбрионального развития быстро изменяются и это следует учесть при оценке естественной кормовой базы прудов.
Для вылова личинок из нерестовых прудов используют сачки, марлевые бредни, а также личинкоуловители. Вылавливать личинок из нерестовых прудов целесообразно на 4-5-й день или же на 8-й день после выхода из икры. На 6-7-й день желательно воздерживаться от таких манипуляций, что связано со спецификой развития личинок. В этот период они, как правило, хуже переносят процессы пересадки и транспортировки.
В личиночный период происходит коренная морфологическая и физиологичная перестройка организма рыб в очень сжатые сроки (10-15 суток). Период этот в жизни рыб является одним с наиболее ответственных. Именно в это время наблюдаются значительные отходы рыбы.
К важнейшим факторам, которые определяют интенсивность роста и выживания личинок рыб, принадлежат температура воды, содержимое растворенного в воде кислорода, обеспеченность их кормами, наличие врагов. Знание оптимальных и критических значений этих показателей является необходимым для успешного выполнения таких работ.
Пределы температуры воды для личинок достаточно широкие. Верхний летальный предел - на уровне 34°С. Оптимальная температура - 24-26°С. неблагоприятные температурные условия приводят к снижению темпа роста, удлинения личиночного периода развития, которое может под воздействием других негативных факторов привести к гибели рыб.
Оптимальная концентрация растворенного в воде кислорода для личинок - не менее 6 мг/л, снижение этого показателя приводит к нежелательным последствиям.
Для нормальной жизнедеятельности личинки карпа и растениеядных рыб требуют животной еды. При их переходе к активному питанию они потребляют инфузорий, коловраток, некоторые водоросли, необходимые, как для пополнения энергии, так и для своевременного начала функционирования пищеварительной системы. Достаточная концентрация доступных за размерами кормовых организмов для личинок карповых рыб представляет не менее 2,5-3,0 тыс. экз./л.
Существенно влияют на выживание личинок карпа хищные беспозвоночные, которые уничтожают икру, личинок и мальков. Это - некоторые виды циклопов, клопы, жуки, личинки стрекоз, в южных районах - рачок лейтестерия, стрептоцефалюс.
Выращивать личинок карпа и растениеядных рыб можно в специальных прудах для мальков площадью до 1 гектар. Основное требование к прудам - тщательное планирование ложа, которое обеспечивает свободный спуск воды из всех участков водоема. Средняя глубина прудов для мальков - около 0,7-0,8 метра с более мелкими участками на водоподаче. Они должны быть построены на плодородных грунтах, расположенные вблизи нерестовых и виращивальных прудов, что значительно упрощает пересадку молодых рыб.
Важным условием успешного подращивания личинок карпа является хорошая естественная кормовая база, которую создают путем внесения в пруды органических удобрений (гной, компост, привяленная растительность). В зависимости от плодородия почв, на которых построенные пруды, нормы внесения удобрений составляют около 2-5 т/га. Вносят их по сухому ложу пруда равномерно распределяя и запахивая дисковой бороной. Свежий гной вносят за 1-1,5 месяцы до заполнения пруда водой. Перепрелый гной и компост вносят за 7-10 суток до заполнения пруда водой, привяленную растительность - по уровню воды (1-2 т/га) через 2-5 суток после его заполнения, когда кислородный режим стабилизировался.
Минеральные удобрения в пруды мальков вносят по биологической потребности в хорошо растворенном виде с доведением содержания азота в воде до 2 мг N/л и фосфора - до 0,5 мг Р/л.
Пруды должны быть оборудованными фильтрами и мусороуловителями, что предотвращает попадание хищных видов беспозвоночных. Если в источнике водоснабжения концентрация мелких форм зоопланктона составляет200-300 экз./л, личинок карпа можно высаживать в пруд через 1 -2 суток после его заполнения водой, если меньшая концентрация гидробионтов - через 3-4 суток.
Плотность посадки в пруды мальков личинок карпа и растениеядных рыб в монокультуре в зависимости от зонального расположения хозяйства и производственных планов составляет 0,5-3 млн. экз./га, в большинстве случаев находится на уровне не больше 1,2-2 млн. экз./га.
Длительность подращивания зависит от жизнеспособности личинок и массы малька, которая необходима для хозяйства. Малёк, который достигает массы 25-30 мг, стойкий к хищным беспозвоночным, способнен потреблять все виды зоопланктонных организмов. В зависимости от температуры воды, кислородного режима, обеспечения рыб едой, плотности посадки, сроки достижения такой массы мальком карпа могут варьировать от 10 до 15 суток. Если малёк должен быть массой не менее 0,5-1,0 г, срок подращивания может расти до 25-30 суток. Более длительное выращивание малька рыб в прудах для мальков считается нецелесообразным.
Облов прудов для мальков осуществляют на рыбоуловителем, установленным за водоспуском. Выход подращенной молодежи - 40-50% и больше.

 

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