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Главная Рыбы Биологическая характеристика судака

Биологическая характеристика судака

Биологическая характеристика судака Судак - значительно распространенный во внутренних водоемах вид рыб. Ценный, в связи с высокими вкусовыми качествами мяса. Личинки судака с 8- дневного возраста питаются зоопланктоном и личинками насекомых. Мальки (длиной 6 мм и больше) вместе с зоопланктоном потребляют личинок и мальков других видов рыб (верховодка, плотва, серебряный карась). Сеголетки полностью переходят на хищный образ жизни.

В естественных водоемах основными местами питания старших вековых групп судака есть зона открытой воды (преимущественно придонные горизонты толщи воды), часто в корчах, ямах с песчаным дном. В сумерках часто питается в прибрежной зоне. Основными кормовыми объектами являются виды рыб удлиненной формы: верховодка, тюлька, сплетня, окунь, бычки. Изредка кормом судака могут быть жабы, раки, личинки насекомых и водные насекомые. Длина тела жертвы (рыбы), как правило, до 30-36% длины судака и не больше 10-12% его массы. При отсутствии в водоеме доступных для него рыб может переходить к каннибализму.
Наиболее интенсивно судак питается при температуре воды 15-22°С и имеет относительно высокий темп роста. При хорошей обеспеченности пищей может достичь массы: на первом годе жизни - 120-150 г, на второму - 400-600 г. В большинстве случаев темп роста судака в естественных водоемах немного низший. Максимальная масса судака - 10-12 кг. Суточная потребность в рыбной пище летом - 1,5- 2,5% массы тела. Одна особь до возраста сеголетка потребляет около 250 экз. молодежи других рыб.
Половая зрелость в судака наступает, как правило, у самцов на втором-третьем годах, у самок - на третьем- четвертом.  Плодородность - от 150 тыс. до 1 млн. икринок. Естественный нерест в апреле - в начале мая при температуре воды 11-15°С. Икру откладывает на твердом дне, на корнях рогоза,  вербы, лозы, а также на искусственные нерестилища в водоемах. Отложенную икру охраняет самец. Судак встречается в опресненных участках морей, поэтому его можно с успехом выращивать в водоемах с повышенной минерализацией воды.


 

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