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Главная Рыбы Форель камлоопс - разновидность форм форелевых рыб

Форель камлоопс - разновидность форм форелевых рыб

Форель камлоопс - разновидность форм форелевых рыбПри выращивании одной формы форели инкубаторий используется всего два месяца в году, личиночных и мальковых площади также не задействованы большую часть года.
Для максимального использования производственных площадей, которое не будет зависеть от сезона размножения одной формы форели, и поддержания равномерного режима реализации товарной продукции, а также для создания её разнообразия в форельных хозяйствах выращивают разные формы, породы и другие виды лососевых рыб, которые отличаются биологическими особенностями (темпом роста, сроком нереста, вкусовыми и эстетическими качествами).

В Украине рекомендуется обратить внимание на следующие объекты:  форель камлоопс, ручейную форель, озерную форель и палия;  стальноголового лосося, калифорнийскую золотую форель и хариуса.

Форель камлоопс

Форель камлоопс рассматривают как подвид радужной форели. В естественных условиях она населяет реки и озера Канады, где растет быстрее, чем другие формы форели.
В европейских странах форель камлоопс начали культивировать в середине 60-х годов. В частности, в Германии она является важным объектом культивирования в хозяйствах разных типов. В целом ее часть складывает около 50% объема производства товарной продукции лососевых рыб.
Половая зрелость наступает в возрасте 3-4 лет. Нерест проходит в ноябре - декабре, срок эксплуатации стада маток - около 8 лет. Срок дозревания и время нереста форели камлоопс зависят от температуры воды.
При комбинированном методе выращивания с использованием теплых вод эти рыбы созревают в возрасте 2 лет. В прудах форель камлоопс созревает через 3 года. Низкие температуры воды вызывают смещение и продолжительность нереста. В этой связи, желательно для культивирования этих рыб избирать водоемы с температурой воды в ноябре - декабре выше 5°С.
Дозревание овоцитов при температуре воды ниже 3 °С не происходит. Значительная часть самцов созревает на 3 году жизни, а у самок в этом возрасте стерильность составляет около 50%. Согласно литературных данных, икра у форели камлоопс мельче, чем у радужной форели, но плодовитость больше. По результатам наших исследований, достоверного отличия по размеру и массе икринок между этими формами форелей не наблюдали, однако плодовитость форели камлоопс, сравнительно с радужной форелью, более высокая на 20-25%.
При благоприятных условиях мальки в конце февраля - начала марта имеют массу 1 г. При температуре воды ниже 6°С отмечается повышенная смертность эмбрионов и замедленный рост у мальков.
Сеголеток интенсивно растут в зимний период при температуре воды выше 3°С. Оптимальная температура составляет 13-18 °С, летальная - 24°С.
Технология разведения и выращивания форели камлоопс, а также ее требования к параметрам среды идентичны радужной форели.
Форель камлоопс является образцовым объектом для гибридизации. Гибриды радужной форели и форели камлоопс растут на 30% лучше, чем исходные формы.

 

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