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Главная Сочные корма Силос Силосование кормов в зависимости от влажности сырья

Силосование кормов в зависимости от влажности сырья

Силосование кормовНезависимо от содержания белка, углеводов, минеральных и других веществ прекращение жизнедеятельности органов и тканей растений и развития на них аэробных микробов определяется лишением доступа кислорода, то есть воздуха. Это обязательное но не всегда достаточное условие силосования кормов с максимальным сохранением полезных веществ или даже улучшением физиологически полезных для животных качеств корма.
Достаточным оно является в тех случаях, когда влажность консервируемой массы не достигает 70%, При более высокой влажности сохранность зеленого корма при обычном силосовании зависит также от: содержания в нем, с одной стороны, сахара, с другой — белка, минеральных и других веществ, обладающих свойствами оснований или могущих быть источником образования соединений с указанными свойствами....

Когда в сырье содержится столько сахара, что при его сбраживании молочнокислыми бактериями в молочную кислоту последней хватает для подкисления среды до рН 4,2, такое сырье можно закладывать на силос без всяких добавок с уверенностью получить доброкачественный корм. Однако при влажности выше 75% такое сырье целесообразнее подвялить, чтобы уменьшить содержание влаги хотя бы до 65—70%, а лучше до 55—60%, или снизить влажность добавлением сухих грубых кормов.
При силосовании недостаточно сахаристого растительного сырья снижение влажности — обязательное условие предотвращения его порчи, сохранения с наименьшими потерями и получения корма, охотно поедаемого скотом. Можно, конечно, к раститёльной массе, содержащей недостаточно сахара, добавить его столько, чтобы получить нужное количество молочной кислоты для подкисления массы до рН 4,2. Однако это рекомендуется делать лишь в том случае, когда нельзя снизить влажность силосуемой массы. Последний прием более рационален, так как потери питательных веществ при его осуществлении (с учетом потерь при провяливании) меньше, а поедаемость скотом корма (в пересчете на сухое вещество) выше.
Таким образом, в простейшем случае процесс силосования кормов складывается из следующих операций: 1) кошение, измельчение, погрузка на транспортные средства; 2) транспортировка; 3) закладка в силосохранилища с уплотнением 4) изоляция от воздуха. Эта схема пригодна для силосования злаковых культур при влажности не выше 75—78%, а бобовых не выше 70%. К сожалению, далеко не для всех культур влажность, при которой можно воспользоваться указанной схемой силосования и которую имеет культура при уборке, совпадает. Такое совпадение наблюдается у кукурузы при уборке ее в восковой спелости, когда влажность ее не превышает 66—68%. При молочно-восковой спелости зерна влажность кукурузы уже доходит до 75—78%. Силосование ее по указанной схеме допустимо уже с натяжкой. Что касается еще более молодой кукурузы, содержащей 80—85% воды, то силосовать ее по описанной схеме уже нельзя: силос, хотя и получается доброкачественный, но слишком кислый, его менее охотно поедает скот, а силосование сопровождается повышенными потерями.
Однолетние бобово-злаковые мешанки во время, рекомендуемое для уборки на корм — фазу созревания зерна в нижних ярусах бобовых, также характеризуются влажностью, соответствующей требованиям технологии силосования. Многолетние травы часто имеют влажность ,70—75% лишь в фазе цветения, когда их общая питательность, богатство белком, витаминами уже значительно ниже, чем при скашивании в более ранние фазы развития.
Для бобовых растений с влажностью выше 70% и злаковых с влажностью выше 75—78% процесс силосования складывается из следующих этапов: 1) кошение (для бобовых с плющением); 2) провяливание (в прокосах с ворошением и в валках, а в южных районах сразу в валках); 3) подборка из валков с измельчением и погрузка на транспортные средства; 4) транспортировка;. 5) загрузка в силосохранилища с уплотнением; 6) изоляция от воздуха. Разумеется, что эта схема применима лишь для мелкотравянистого сырья и при благоприятных; для подвяливания условиях.
При невозможности провяливания процесс силосования кормов складывается из следующих операций: 1) кошение с измельчением и погрузкой на транспортные средства; 2) транспортировка; 3) загрузка с добавлением сухого компонента и перемешиванием с ним, а также уплотнение; 4) изоляция от воздуха.

 

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