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Главная Птицы Содержание взрослых перепёлок

Содержание взрослых перепёлок

Содержание взрослых перепелокПерепёлки очень реагируют на разные стрессовые факторы и резкие колебания температуры в помещении, нарушение режимов освещении, кормления, пересадки. Эта реакция может проявляться в виде выпадения пера, возникновения каннибализма, уменьшение производительности. Поэтому помещения, в которых удерживают перепёлок, должны быть сухими, иметь хорошую вентиляцию и отопление.
Вентиляционная система должна обеспечивать поступление свежего воздуха из расчета: на 1кг живой массы птицы - 1,5 м3 /мг в холодное время года и не менее 5 м3/мг - в теплое.

Помещения для перепёлок могут быть с окнами или без них (последний тип помещения лучше). Для искусственного освещения используют обычные лампы накаливания (40-60 Вт) или люминесцентные лампы (ЛДІІ-40, ЛБ). Освещенность быть невысокой (30-40 лк), потому что высокая предопределяет беспокойное состояние перепёлок и каннибализм. Длительность светового дня - 17 часов. Температура в помещении для взрослых перепёлок поддерживают на уровне 20-22°С.
Для получения пищевых яиц самок удерживают без самцов. При производстве инкубационных яиц самок и самцов размешивают вместе в таком соотношении - 1:2 - 1:4. Плотность посадки перепёлок при групповом содержании 70-100 голов на 1 м2 площади клетки.
При проведении племенной работы, когда необходим учет происхождения перепелят, самок удерживают отдельно от самцов, которых размещают в индивидуальных клетках. Для парования самку подсаживают к самцу на 15 минут один раз на 3 дня.
Для содержания взрослых перепёлок используют клеточные батареи разных конструкций. Можно применять клеточные батареи, которые предназначены для выращивания ремонтного молодняка кур. Для этого сетчатый пол клетки закрепляют со склоном в сторону кормушки и оборудуют яйцесборником. Клетки верхнего яруса накрывают фанерой или другим материалом, чтобы защитить птицу от чрезмерного освещения.

Клетки для содержания перепелокМожно также использовать клетки, изготовленные наподобие японских. Их делают в виде отдельных разборных клеток - контейнеров из металлических прутьев, лучше с полимерным покрытием. Клетка квадратной формы имеет такие размеры: длина и ширина - по 600 мм, высота передней части - 125 мм, задней - 105 мм Для посадки и вынимания птицы в верхней части клетки делают дверцы. Кормушку закрепляют спереди, а поилку - сзади. Передняя и задняя стенки должны иметь дополнительные решетки, передвижением которых можно изменять просвет кормовых отверстий, в зависимости от размера птицы.
Клетки-контейнеры устанавливаются на стояках с траверсов. Количество ярусов и количество клеток в ярусе могут быть разными, в зависимости от размеров помещения, объема производства и других факторов. В каждой клетке размещают 30-35 перепёлок.
В клетки для перепёлок молодняк переводят в 30-40-дневном возрасте. В этом же возрасте комплектуют группы, которые предназначены для производства инкубационных яиц. В дальнейшем перегруппировка птицы нежелательно, потому что это приведет к снижению производительности. Очистки клеточных батарей от помета проводят ежедневно механическими или ручными скребками, в зависимости от конструкции батарей.
Перепёлки несутся утром, поэтому яйца собирают один раз в первой половине дня. Яйца для инкубации получают в течение восьми месяцев от двух до десятимесячного возраста. После этого срока оплодотворённость и выводимость яиц снижается, хотя несучесть еще остается интенсивной. Поэтому от самок старше 10 месяцев яйца следует использовать в качестве пищевых. Массу яиц определяют путем взвешивания. Внешний вид - визуально. Для проверки свежести яиц от среднего образца (200 шт.) отбирают пробу (100 шт.) и погружают в воду комнатной температуры. Свежие яйца опускаются на дно посуды. Упаковывают яйца по 10, 20, 50 штуки в картонные коробки из прокладками в соответствии с действующей нормативно-технической документацией. Коробки и ящики должны быть чистыми, сухими, без плесени и постороннего запаха.
Срок использования самцов для воссоздания более короток, чем самок. Поэтому, для обеспечения высокой оплодотворённости яиц в течение племенного периода самок, целесообразно после трех-четырех месяцев (в 5-6-месячном возрасте) проводить замену самцов. Вместо выбракованных подсаживают молодых 2-месячных самцов. Это может временно снижать несучесть самок. Выбракованных самцов после 3-недельного откармливания сдают на мясо.

 

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