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Главная Рыбы Русловые , балочные и одамбованые пруды

Русловые , балочные и одамбованые пруды

Русловые , балочные и одамбованые прудыПо характеру водоснабжения и особенностям технического обустройства созданные пруды можно разделить на группы или типы, основными из которых есть русловые, балочные и пруды построенные в заводях с помощью дамб.
Типовые русловые - это пруды, построенные в долинах малых рек образованиям поперечных плотин, которые задерживают речную воду В зависимости от ширины заводи, высоты гребли и наклона русла реки, эти пруды имеют площадь от 5-10 до несколько сотен гектаров. Глубина возле гребли составляет до 3-5 метров.

Дальше к верховью пруд переходит в переувлажнённые луга с высоким уровнем грунтовых вод. Незначительные глубины около верховья и берегов, в первую очередь в больших русловых прудах, содействуют развитию и распространению болотной растительности (осоки, рогоза камыша). Растительность постепенно ежегодно разрастается и площадь водного зеркала может существенно уменьшаться. Растения, которые отмирают, откладываются на дне; так постепенно в прудах, которые длительное время бывают заполненные водой, слой отмершей растительности увеличивается и образуется торфяник.
В результате интенсивного зарастания уменьшается доступная для нагула рыб площадь, водные растения забирают много питательных веществ, растворенных в воде, присмотр за прудами и выращиваемой рыбой ухудшается, заросли способствуют развитию в прудах вредителей и паразитов рыб, а нагромождение на дне пруда органических веществ негативно влияет на экологическое состояние водоемов. Чтобы такие русловые пруды были пригодны для эффективного ведения рыбохозяйственной деятельности, необходимо их делать спусковыми, как можно большую часть дна периодически осушать, а почву ложа обрабатывать, не допуская образования заболоченных, торфяных участков.
По принципу функционирования русловых прудов, используют водонакопительные (водоснабжающие) водоемы, созданные, как правило, в верхней части рыбного хозяйства, чтобы обеспечить водой пруды, расположенные ниже. Водоснабжающие пруды мало отличаются от русловых, однако они оборудованы соответствующими регуляторами подачи воды в систему прудов, расположенных ниже.
Подобно типичным русловым прудам, благодаря сооружению плотин построены балочные пруды. Сооруженные во влажных впадинах и балках плотины задерживают сток атмосферных осадков из водосборной площади и накапливают возможные выходы грунтовых вод в виде мелких источников и ручьев. Глубина прудов около плотины по большей части не превышает 2,0-2,5 м и постепенно уменьшается к верховью (вершины). Площадь таких прудов, в большинстве случаев, до 10-15 гектар. В зимний период в прудах этого типа при отсутствии притока грунтовых вод существует риск значительного ухудшения кислородного режима водной среды, который ограничивает их рыбохозяйственные возможности при использовании в условиях многолетнего регулирования.
Одамбованные водоёмы строят преимущественно в заводях рек с самостоятельным водоснабжением из главного - водоснабжающего пруда или вблизи больших водоемов, из которых они обеспечиваются водой с помощью насосных станций. Эти пруды оборудуют в заводи, насыпкой дамб, водоспусками и водонапускными сооружениями. Такие дамбы менее массивны, чем плотины на русловых прудах, сооружения водоспусков более простые. Эти пруды имеют достаточно равномерную глубину и всегда являются спусковыми. Поэтому на них легко обрабатывать почву ложа и этим способствовать повышению эффективности рыбохозяйственной эксплуатации. Важным является и то, что в одамбованныхх прудах можно оперативно регулировать водообмен в зависимости от потребности. На русловых и особенно балочных прудах этот процесс значительно ограничен. К тому же, в одамбованых прудах во время ливней и наводнений не возникает угрозы выхода рыбы из них или попадания посторонней, "дикой".

 

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